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         author = {George, Anjith and Mostaani, Zohreh and Geissbuhler, David and Nikisins, Olegs and Anjos, Andr{\'{e}} and Marcel, S{\'{e}}bastien},
       projects = {Idiap},
          title = {Biometric Face Presentation Attack Detection with Multi-Channel Convolutional Neural Network},
           year = {2019},
       abstract = {Face recognition is a mainstream biometric authentication method. However, vulnerability to presentation attacks (a.k.a spoofing) limits its usability in unsupervised applications. Even though there are many methods available for tackling presentation attacks (PA), most of them fail to detect sophisticated attacks such as silicone masks.
As the quality of presentation attack instruments improves over time, achieving reliable PA detection with visual spectra alone remains very challenging. We argue that analysis in multiple channels might help to address this issue.  In this context, we propose a multi-channel Convolutional Neural Network based approach for presentation attack detection (PAD).
We also introduce the new Wide Multi-Channel presentation Attack (WMCA) database for face PAD which contains a wide variety of 2D and 3D presentation attacks for both impersonation and obfuscation attacks. Data from different channels such as color, depth, near-infrared and thermal are available to advance the research in face PAD. The proposed method was compared with feature-based approaches and found to outperform the baselines achieving an ACER of 0.3\% on the introduced dataset. The database and the software to reproduce the results are made available publicly.},
            pdf = {https://publications.idiap.ch/attachments/papers/2019/George_TIFS_2019.pdf}