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         author = {von Gunten, Diane and Rager, Jakob and K{\"{a}}mpf, J{\'{e}}r{\^{o}}me and Kuchler, Fabien and Poumad{\`{e}}re, Fabien},
       projects = {Idiap},
          month = nov,
          title = {Retrofitting, district heating and energy storage: neighborhood energy planning},
      booktitle = {Journal of Physics: Conference Series},
         volume = {1343},
           year = {2019},
      publisher = {IOP Publishing Ltd},
            doi = {10.1088/1742-6596/1343/1/012108},
       abstract = {We compare simulated energy retrofitting of individual buildings with energy refurbishments optimized at the scale of the neighborhood. For the neighborhood case, buildings can also be connected together through a heat network. We use a detailed three-dimensional model to estimate heating needs (CitySim) and a mixed-integer linear optimizer to analyze different options for energy refurbishment, including various heating technologies. According to our simulations, planning at the neighborhood scale results in slightly lower costs (about -5\%) and lower C02 emissions (about -60\%) than planning energy refurbishment at the building scale, showing that integrated planning of energy refurbishment is beneficial from both environmental and economical points of view.}