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         author = {Luisier, Raphaelle and Girgin, Mehmet and Lutolf, Matthias P. and Ranga, Adrian},
       projects = {Idiap},
          title = {Mammary epithelial morphogenesis in 3D combinatorial microenvironments},
        journal = {Scientific Reports},
         volume = {10},
         number = {1},
           year = {2020},
            url = {https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-78432-w},
       abstract = {Human mammary epithelial cells can proliferate and reorganize into polarized multi-cellular constructs in-vitro, thereby functioning as an important model system in recapitulating key steps of in-vivo morphogenesis. Current approaches to constructing such three-dimensional mimics of the in-vivo microenvironment have involved the use of complex and ill-defined naturally derived matrices, whose properties are difficult to manipulate independently, and which have therefore limited our ability to understand the extrinsic regulation of morphogenesis. Here, we employ an automated, high-throughput approach to array modular building blocks of synthetic components, and develop a systematic approach to analyze colonies resulting from these varied microenvironmental combinations. This methodology allows us to systematically map the relationship between microenvironmental properties and ensuing morphogenetic phenotypes. Our analysis reveals that apico-basal polarity of mammary epithelial cells occurs within a narrow range of matrix stiffness, and that phenotypic homogeneity is favored in matrices which are insensitive to MMP-mediated degradation. Furthermore, combinations of extracellular proteins in the matrix finely tune the morphology of the mammary colonies, suggesting that subtle disregulations of the microenvironment may play a significant role in pathological disease states. This approach, which leverages the combinatorial possibilities of modular synthetic artificial extracellular matrices with an automated technology platform, demonstrates how morphogenesis can be assessed systematically in 3D, and provides new insights into mammary epithelial multicellularity.},
            pdf = {https://publications.idiap.ch/attachments/papers/2020/Luisier_SCIENTIFICREPORTS_2020.pdf}