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         author = {Mautuit, Thibaud and Cunnac, Pierre and Truffer, Fr{\'{e}}d{\'{e}}ric and Anjos, Andr{\'{e}} and Dufrane, Rebecca and Ma{\^{\i}}tre, Gilbert and Geiser, Martial and Chiquet, Christophe},
       projects = {Idiap},
          month = jan,
          title = {Absolute retinal blood flow in healthy eyes and in eyes with retinal vein occlusion},
        journal = {Microvascular Research},
         volume = {152},
           year = {2024},
           issn = {0026-2862},
            doi = {10.1016/j.mvr.2023.104648},
       abstract = {Purpose: To measure non-invasively retinal venous blood flow (RBF) in healthy subjects and patients with retinal venous occlusion (RVO).

Methods: The prototype named AO-LDV (Adaptive Optics Laser Doppler Velocimeter), which combines a new absolute laser Doppler velocimeter with an adaptive optics fundus camera (rtx1, Imagine Eyes{\textregistered}, Orsay, France), was studied for the measurement of absolute RBF as a function of retinal vessel diameters and simultaneous measurement of red blood cell velocity. RBF was measured in healthy subjects (n = 15) and patients with retinal venous occlusion (RVO, n = 6). We also evaluated two softwares for the measurement of retinal vessel diameters: software 1 (automatic vessel detection, profile analysis) and software 2 (based on the use of deep neural networks for semantic segmentation of vessels, using a M2u-Net architecture).

Results: Software 2 provided a higher rate of automatic retinal vessel measurement (99.5 \% of 12,320 AO images) than software 1 (64.9 \%) and wider measurements (75.5 ± 15.7 μm vs 70.9 ± 19.8 μm, p smaller than 0.001). For healthy subjects (n = 15), all the retinal veins in one eye were measured to obtain the total RBF. In healthy subjects, the total RBF was 37.8 ± 6.8 μl/min. There was a significant linear correlation between retinal vessel diameter and maximal velocity (slope = 0.1016; p smaller than 0.001; r2 = 0.8597) and a significant power curve correlation between retinal vessel diameter and blood flow (3.63 × 10−5 × D2.54; p smaller than 0.001; r2 = 0.7287). No significant relationship was found between total RBF and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, ocular perfusion pressure, heart rate, or hematocrit. For RVO patients (n = 6), a significant decrease in RBF was noted in occluded veins (3.51 ± 2.25 μl/min) compared with the contralateral healthy eye (11.07 ± 4.53 μl/min). For occluded vessels, the slope between diameter and velocity was 0.0195 (p smaller than 0.001; r2 = 0.6068) and the relation between diameter and flow was Q = 9.91 × 10−6 × D2.41 (p smaller than 0.01; r2 = 0.2526). Conclusion: This AO-LDV prototype offers new opportunity to study RBF in humans and to evaluate treatment in retinal vein diseases.},
            pdf = {https://publications.idiap.ch/attachments/papers/2024/Mautuit_MICROVASCULARRESEARCH_2024.pdf}